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A new digital catalog is coming to the Lackawanna County Library System on March 26. This change will bring convenient new features such as custom user names, simpler searching and a history of material checked out. The new catalog will also include customized lists, where users will have the opportunity to group titles into categories for easy...


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Top Answers About CSS3 on Quora

Top Answers About CSS3 on Quora

I have learned HTML, CSS and CSS3, but I am unable to design a complete webpage. What should I do to learn to use them to build a website?

You have to be aware that HTML/CSS/CSS3 is a Front-end development skill and not web design. Though It's a practical skill to have if you're a web designer because one, you can easily implement your design from your mock-ups/wireframe and two, you know the best practices and limitations of the web.

Like you, I learned HTML right away before learning web design. I also struggled when completing designs so I did my research and found out that I have to start from its very foundation. Graphic Design, and to jump straight to what I think are important to learn if you want to be a web designer are:
  • Typography. You have to learn how to properly choose the right fonts(typefaces). This also includes proper combinations of fonts. You can easily produce beautiful designs if you'll use the right fonts for your project(s). Quick tip. Use 1-2 fonts (maximum of 3 if necessary), I highly recommend as a starter to use families of fonts. I also recommend you to watch Helvetica(documentary).
  • Grid and Layout. This is very much important if you want to achieve organization and balance with your design. Learn a few things about the rule of thirds/golden rule. You will heavily rely on grid more specially in web design, this will also help you create modular designs on the way, aesthetically and front-end coding wise. Famous frameworks like Twitter Bootstrap, Zurb's Foundation, Skeleton and the likes, uses and promotes grids.
  • Color Theory. This part is probably my hardest struggle when I was just starting out. Like you, I immediately learn how to code and without proper knowledge how to use colors, I never was able to produce anything that I'm happy or proud of. Having a solid foundation of how colors work, how and where to use them will help you in the long run. Web design or just even when you just need to produce banners or graphic assets.
Having a solid foundation of those 3 that I mentioned will definitely help you in terms of design.

Sadly, having to design a complete web page doesn't end there. You can't design something if you don't have content. As many people quote and say, "Content is King". It is. You can't layout or do any design without it. It's important to know the content of the page you want to design. Though there are typical design elements and sections that a webpage should have like brand logo, navigation and footer, you still need to figure out your content. If you're struggling to produce a complete web page, maybe because you haven't figured out what and where to put things(content) or simply because you don't have enough content in the first place. One more thing that I highly recommend you to learn if you want to cope with this dilemma is Information Architecture. Basically, it just means organizing content properly.

Here's a list of recommended exercises you can do to improve your skills and get use to it:
- Redesign a web page/site you don't like. Something that looks like it was from the past.
- Design a web page for your favorite brand(s)/celebrity. It could be about your favorite shoes or your favorite band. And yes, I need to stop saying 'favorite'.
- Design a web page for a fictitious product, service or company. Do you have a crazy idea? An app or something that you think that will change the world? Go ahead, create a web page about it.

Lastly, I highly recommend you to immerse and digest design materials. It can be books, articles or just screenshots/images/design studies from Behance and/or Pinterest. This will inspire you and hopefully open your eyes for good design.

Hope this helps :)

Update: Here's an Inspiring person who built 180 websites in 180 days.
180 Websites in 180 Days: How I Learned to Code - Lean In

Another Update: Check out my other answer about learning Web Design Here in Quora.

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Posted on 14 April 2015

What technologies does Google use for their own Google Chrome apps?

As far as I heard for many applications they still use something similar to GWT (Google Web Toolkit) that cross compiles Java to JavaScript. That allows them to share code between the browser and Android apps. That combined with their Closure compiler library which is used extensively.
Google Inbox is an example that uses this approach. Here are some links that detail their approach there:
Some internal apps are written in Angular as well (as far as I've read) but not many public ones..

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Posted on 7 January 2015

What are common mistakes user experience designers make?

1. Trying to account for every imaginable use case

One of the most common mistakes I see designers make is not recognizing that trying to account for every single thing that every type of user might want to do isn't always a great approach.

In some ways this seems counterintuitive... Isn't it good to create a design that fits absolutely everyone's needs? In theory, yes. But in practice, this ends up manifesting itself as half your system's functionality only being used by 10% of your users. As a designer, you lose focus on what matters and add complexity that 90% of your users are burdened with (see Microsoft Word).

The way this problem often appears is someone says "Well how does your design handle X user, in Y situation, with Z circumstances" and the designer responds by immediately adding in a feature to account for this, without seriously considering how rare or low impact the use case may be.

The way to avoid this is to be extremely clear with yourself about who your 90% user is and ruthlessly driving the design with them in mind. That's what matters.

2. Overfitting a problem

We can think of the process of designing a product as observing some kind or organizational or human behavior in the real world and building a tool to support, extend, and amplify these behaviors. At a high level, if we can build a product that effectively models and extends the human or organizational behavior, we've built a useful product (this is exactly what many user-centered design methods are meant to support).

Whenever we create model of some behavior (be it statistics or UX design), though, there is always a possibility of overfitting.

Overfitting occurs when a statistical model describes random error or noise instead of the underlying relationship. - Wikipedia

One of the biggest mistakes that UX designers make is not attempting to understand the difference between the random noise and underlying relationships in human and organizational behavior.

If you can design a product that supports just these underlying relationships and solves just the core challenges, you've likely built a very long-lasting, impactful product that will appeal to many people. Products that do this extremely well can transform industries.

3. Only improving a design by making small, careful iterations

The final mistake that I commonly see UX designers make is assuming that making small, careful iterations to a design is always the best way to create the best product. This is often an effect of always AB testing designs and blindly choosing the winner. This approach is similar to hill climbing.

Hill climbing is an iterative algorithm that starts with an arbitrary solution to a problem, then attempts to find a better solution by incrementally changing a single element of the solution. If the change produces a better solution, an incremental change is made to the new solution, repeating until no further improvements can be found.

Hill climbing is good for finding a local optimum (a solution that cannot be improved by considering a neighbouring configuration) but it is not guaranteed to find the best possible solution out of all possible solutions. The characteristic that only local optima are guaranteed can be cured by using restarts. - Wikipedia

As a UX designer, it is your job to recognize the situations when the best approach is to try something entirely different in hopes of finding a dramatically better solution, rather than just optimizing your existing approach.

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Posted on 26 October 2014

I have learned HTML, CSS and CSS3, but I am unable to design a complete webpage. What should I do to learn to use them to build a website?

I've struggled with this problem in the past. I considered myself competent in HTML, CSS, and JS but couldn't put those skills to use. So, here are my recommendations:

  1. Subscribe to awesome blogs like CSS Tricks (http://css-tricks.com) where you can learn more cool features and quirks of the languages you love.
  2. Make yourself a CodePen (http://codepen.io) account. You can use any of the big online editors - but I prefer codepen for its shortcuts, interface, and especially community. Browse it often and don't feel bad to look at, modify, play with, and ask questions about other people's code.
  3. Get yourself real code editing software. For larger projects, you want durable but easy to use software. I've seen Dreamweaver mentioned, though it's become somewhat outdated as of late - and it's quite expensive! Plenty of people have pretty strong feelings about the program they use - if you want to hear about more just search for it on Quora. My personal recommendation is Brackets. It's free, open source, updates regularly, and has live preview, a feature I wouldn't do without in any other software.
  4. Practice, practice, practice! Nothing beats this. Make something little on codepen, make something big in brackets, make something in-between with a friend! No matter what you do, you're getting better.

Once you've become proficient in HTML and CSS it's time to move on to more advanced projects. Here's what I'd suggest doing next:
  1. Learn your way around the command line. It should be your best friend. You'll need it, later, for automation and tools like git and node.
  2. Learn git and make a github (http://github.com) account. You'll want it for collaboration and deployment. Don't stress out about git, though - git has a really steep learning curve! Github has a desktop app that does simplify things, and you can use tools like ungit (https://github.com/FredrikNoren/...) to get the basics down.

I wish you all the best on your endeavors with the web. It's tricky to get a website going, and I admire your determination. Good luck, and, more importantly, have fun.

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Posted on 15 October 2014

I have learned HTML, CSS and CSS3, but I am unable to design a complete webpage. What should I do to learn to use them to build a website?

This is a complete web page:
<!DOCTYPE html>
<title>This is a webpage</title>
<style type="text/css">
body { font-family: sans-serif; }
a:link, a:visited, a:active { text-decoration: none; }
a:hover { text-decoration: underline; }
<p>This is a web page</p>
<p>Now let's read some more <a href="http://quora.com">Quora</a>.</p>

If you can't build that, you haven't learned HTML or CSS. You've learned some tags and maybe some selectors. It's bringing those together that makes a web page. A website is just a bunch of pages that work together to achieve a particular goal.*

The good news is, learning the basics of web design/development is pretty easy. And there are lots of great online courses. Here is a great, free one that I recommend: http://www.codecademy.com/en/tra...

As Tim Samoff mentions in the comments on my answer, what will probably help bring this all together for you is a better understanding of the CSS Box Model. This link from CSS-Tricks (a great site, BTW) which Tim recommended will serve you well: The CSS Box Model | CSS-Tricks

*I'm oversimplifying. I know that.

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Posted on 3 October 2014

How do I use my knowledge of HTML and CSS to create my own website?

You should check out our new book (https://www.bloc.io/build-your-f...) about building your first site using HTML and CSS — outside of the browser. It walks you through how to build a simple site using a text editor and deploying it to Github Pages. You can use the same workflow in building out other projects as well.

If you have any other questions, feel free to reach out. And if you want to build on those skills you've gotten from Codecademy, you should check out our programs at Bloc (http://www.bloc.io).

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Posted on 21 July 2014

What is the best framework for creating mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript?

AngularJS + Ionic Framework + Cordova/Phonegap = a tech stack for building HTML, CSS, JS native apps with native like performance.

If you're able to control the design process, we've found the above tech stack extremely light weight, yet powerful for building some pretty complex apps. Phonegap API now integrates with pretty much everything you'd need for building a native app: http://docs.phonegap.com/en/1.2.0/

Here's an example of a somewhat more simple app built using the above stack - note how fast it is (there is an android version too): https://itunes.apple.com/us/app/...

UPDATE (May 2015): Ionic now also offer a free push notification platform with simple integration setup. They also offer app analytics all tracked and viewed via your Ionic account. There's also the extremely useful Ionic View App: http://view.ionic.io/ which can be used to quickly test your app on iOS or Android without building your app with certificates etc. Easy!

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Posted on 8 July 2014

Why are div elements not implied?

HTML has been evolving over a very long time.

Initially HTML was just a way to mark up normal text ("this text is bold", "this text is italic", "this is a hyperlink to another document with text"). Then it started getting more visual structure (images, tables, etc) which led to a bunch of new elements.

Eventually people were designing their web pages by creating tables to lay out content, similar to news papers etc. To accommodate people in styling their web pages beyond hacking with tables and images, CSS was created, which let people add a lot of variation to elements beyond what was allowed through attributes (which at the time was the only way to control appearance).

Once CSS (along with the style and class attributes) was introduced, there was for the first time a use case for generic elements that didn't have a pre-defined look. This is when <span> and <div> (division) were introduced. Their only purpose was to have CSS styles applied to them, with one being for inline text, and the other being for block content. Back then, <div> was a very powerful element.

Once HTML 5 was being drafted, web developers began demanding more semantic ways to mark up their content. Elements like <section> popped up, and <div> was no longer very important.

Today the web world is very different from what it was. People barely even know about the <center> element, or the bgcolor attribute anymore. But for the sake of backwards compatibility they still exist. And so does <div>, even if it isn't really needed anymore.

If you want to write really semantic HTML, you can use a lot of the new HTML 5 elements (there's <nav>, <section>, <article>, <header>, <footer>, <aside>, and more) instead of putting CSS classes on <div>s. And if that doesn't work, Custom Elements are really starting to take off, and are practically the answer to your <hero-img> element.

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Posted on 24 April 2014

What are some beginner mistakes people make with CSS?

I've spent quite a bit of time writing CSS (since I was 9 or 10 really!). Here are some of the things I've learned.

  • Don't forget to deal with browser incompatibilities. Use Browsershots to help with visualizing your site in other browsers.
  • Normalize your CSS using a reset document (different browsers define different default styles)
  • Make sure you program for various resolutions. Figure out a max resolution and a min resolution for your page. Work on making it fluid so it looks nice. Try and look into providing a mobile version of your site (in most cases, it involves a really strong fluid website that ignores certain parts of the page -- look at how Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia works.)
  • Don't be overly specific with your selectors. CSS selectors obey a hierarchy:
    1. global selector
    2. tag selector
      , ...
    3. class selector
    4. id selector
    Each one going down the list gets more and more specific. You should not combine them in a single selector for a single html element such as
    . There is no point. It can be inefficient. Just write them as specific as you need them.
  • Combine properties! There are lots of ways to shorten your CSS code such as writing
    : (
    ) (
    ) (
    ) (
    instead of just
    : (
    : (
    : (
    : (
    . The same is said for border, padding, background, font, and so on.
  • Use a freaking CSS framework. You may be used to python or ruby or some other language where you build the tools you need because there's a lot more you can do outside of a framework. CSS doesn't have that. There's nothing new in CSS that someone else hasn't already done. Just pick a damn framework and use it to make it easier on you.
  • 0 is 0px is 0em is 0in. Whenever you specify something as 0, that's it. Who cares what units you're working in?
  • Make sure your HTML is valid. Why would you paint a shitty building that's falling apart? Fix it up first, THEN paint it. While you're at it, validate your CSS.
  • Use hexadecimals or rgb(r,g,b) declarations - not word names. This is like normalizing CSS - different browsers have different standards.
  • NEVER USE INLINE CSS. Part of the reason is KISS. Keep It Simple Stupid. An HTML page should contain all the necessary HTML you need to build your page without any css or javascript. Then load in your javascript for events and actions and interactivity, and your css to make it look nice. The benefit is that someone new to programming your site can figure out where everything is, because you've separated everything akin to an MVC layout.

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Posted on 19 January 2014

Where can I practice my HTML, CSS, and JavaScript?

I really recommend finding sites you like and reverse-engineering them. In other words, open up the website in a browser, but pretend what you see is a PSD you're going to code into HTML/CSS.

By learning this way, there are unlimited options to code from, you can try your hand at websites built by the best developers in the industry, and there's no pressure to do anything perfectly. Plus, if you get stuck, you can always "inspect element" and see how the developer actually did it.

It's really the only way I gained experience before doing actual client work.

Start with simple portfolio sites you like--something like, say,http://jonchretien.com and work your way up to more complicated sites you like.

As you're progressing, just keep an eye out for websites with features/techniques (responsive web design, animations, jquery animations, CSS3 effects, etc) you're trying to learn and build the whole thing. That way you'll get a feel for how those features should fit into your overall workflow.

Short tutorials are good for learning principles, but building sites from start to finish is what really solidified my knowledge.


In Firefox, if you right click on a website and click "view page info", click on the "media" tab, and you can select all of the images used in the design and download them. So, when you're reverse engineering the site locally, you can use the same media that was used to build the original website.

Get the "Colorpeek" chrome plugin. It'll scan an entire website and grab all the colors used in it, and spit out the hex/rgb codes for each. it's super handy, along with a liveReload plugin, and the Web Developer tools plugin.

*It should go without saying, don't pass off the designs as your own. This is just for practice.

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Posted on 2 December 2013

What are the best video courses online (free or paid) to learn how to become a better web designer (HTML, CSS, Photoshop) after the basics?

Make Money With Photoshop

This is a fantastic course! The instructor has a great manner and he makes the   material easy to understand. In this course you'll learn everything you need to know about Photoshop and how to use it to create amazing website designs. I love this course because the videos are short and due to time constraints or distractions. I can learn or review any part of this course at any time. Highly recommended.

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Posted on 18 October 2013

What are the best video courses online (free or paid) to learn how to become a better web designer (HTML, CSS, Photoshop) after the basics?

Posted on 18 October 2013

What are the best video courses online (free or paid) to learn how to become a better web designer (HTML, CSS, Photoshop) after the basics?

I agree that lynda.com is awesome, and the availability of titles on there is great. I used to teach web design and development at UCSB and I would send students there for more information on in-depth topics.

If you're looking into more on CSS, I like CSS tricks (http://css-tricks.com/). They do free videos and blog posts.

A List Apart is great for free tips and also some more process-oriented blog posts, but not video (http://www.alistapart.com/).  Smashing was mentioned (http://www.smashingmagazine.com/), and I recommend signing up to their RSS feed.

I like the idea of diving into particular topics in-depth.  For instance, look into CSS3 in depth, and HTML 5, or take the opportunity to learn a different way to code a project for a client (correctly, of course!). If you have time, I think using the available resources and then putting them to good use is the best way to really expand your current knowledge.

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Posted on 18 October 2013

Is it possible to get a job as a Web developer with only a knowledge of HTML and CSS and no JavaScript?

Yes, it is possible, but very difficult. I have spent the last five years as a professional web developer in a variety of roles and I know no JavaScript of any real-world use.

I’ve been sure to specialise very heavily in one key area of HTML and CSS so that I am of use to larger organisations who can afford having such a tight level of expertise. I specialise in scalable CSS, front-end development process, working on big sites in big teams, CSS architecture, etc, etc. I have achieved great success in doing this; high responsibility jobs, international speaking engagements, a generous online following (site readers, Twitter followers and the like), awards and award nominations and more. This is all because of specialising heavily in one key area. You can actually be very successful by knowing a lot about one specific field, but you have to know a lot.

The short answer is: yes, it is possible, but you have to make sure you’re very good at one specific thing.

EDIT: I’d like to make a quick edit; reading this back makes me sound very boastful, which I really don't mean to be. The point I am making is that I have specialised so heavily that it had made me relatively well known in the field. I am that specialised that I have managed to make a name for myself in this very specific area. These are the levels of specialism we are dealing with, which I feel may not be easily replicable or even viable for others. I hope that clears things up a little.

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Posted on 16 September 2013

What are some of the neatest CSS tricks you have encountered?

Hmmmm, well your question doesn't specify whether CSS or CSS3, so I'm just going to pick the latter....

Recently, a lot of designers are using animations to create full site fade-ins without using Javascript. Some are even using CSS3 coupled with Javascript to create more interactive dropdown menus.

Here's my list of some nifty CSS3 tricks
Some sites that have utilized some good CSS3 tricks:

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Posted on 10 September 2013

How can someone be a better Front-end Developer?

I think you should go for these steps for learning
  1. Learn HTML5
  2. Learn CSS (Get good grip on it)
  3. Learn Cross Browser issues and fixes
  4. Learn JavaScript first and then JQuery
  5. Learn popular frameworks like Bootstrap/ 960grid (still old but useful)
  6. Watch for latest trends in front end like Parallax scrolling/ Responsive designs etc...

Next step is to speed up your coding so for that
  1. Use Less or SASS (I use LESS)
  2. Use EMMET or any other short hand coding styles
  3. Use good editor like Sublime Text

Also subscribe to good blogs like Codrops and few others like CSS-Tricks and subscribe to Tuts+

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Posted on 19 August 2013

What is the best method for adding 2x images to webpages that will be displayed on the new iPad with Retina graphics?

Making your app ready for Retina displays doesn’t have to be a hassle. Whether you are building a new app or upgrade an existing one, this guide is designed to help you get the job done smoothly.

Make it Retina first

The easiest and most time-saving way to add retina support is to create one image that is optimized for retina devices and serve it to non-retina devices as well.

By now every modern browser uses bicubic resampling and does a great job with downsampling images. Here is a comparison of downsampling in Photoshop vs Google Chrome using an image from our Growth Engineering 101 website.

There are two ways to let the browser downsample images for you. Using img tags and using CSS background images.

If you have img tags serve the retina optimized image and set the width and height attributes to half of the resolution of the actual image (e.g. 400x300 if the image dimensions are 800x600).

<img src=”http://www.example.com/retina-image-800x600-2x.png” width=”400” height=”300”>

If you use images as CSS background you can use the background-size property of CSS3 to downsample the image for non-retina devices.

<div class=”photo”></div>

.photo {     background-image: url(retina-image-800x600-2x.png);     background-size: 400px 300px;     background-repeat: no-repeat;     display: block;     width: 400px;     height: 300px; }

In both cases make sure to use even numbers in both dimensions to prevent displacement of pixels when the image is being downsampled by the browser.
When downsampling is not good enough
Usually browser downsampling should work very well. That said there are some situations where downsampling in the browser might make images blurry.

Here we have a bunch of 32x32 px social icons.
And here is how they look like downsampled to 16x16px by Photoshop’s as well as Google Chrome’s bicubic filter. It seems like we get better results from Photoshop in this case.

To get the best results for our users we can create two versions of the same image. One for retina devices and another one downsampled by photoshop for non-retina devices.

Now you can use a CSS media query to serve retina or non-retina images depending on the pixel density of the device.

/* CSS for devices with normal screens */ .icons {     background-image: url(icon-sprite.png);     background-repeat: no-repeat; } /* CSS for high-resolution devices */ @media only screen and (-Webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), only screen and (-moz-min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5), only screen and (-o-min-device-pixel-ratio: 3/2), only screen and (min-device-pixel-ratio: 1.5) {     .icons {         background-image: url(icon-sprite-2x.png);         background-size: 200px 100px;         background-repeat: no-repeat;     } }

If you use a background color for small icons on the other hand, downsampling by the browser works pretty well. This is the same downsampling example with white background.

Polishing your Downsampled Images

If you’re still not satisfied with the results from Photoshop’s downsampling you can go the extra mile and hand-optimize the non-retina version to get super crisp results.

Below are some examples of images from the Blossom product website that I hand-optimized for people on non-retina devices.

Borders & Strokes

Here is an example of downsampling issues with hairlines where I re-draw the lines of the downsampled image.
View the Retina Version of this Image on Dribbble.
Here is an example of downsampling issues with text. In this case I manually re-wrote the text “Feature Pipeline” to get to a crisp result.

The Image above is the Retina Version

When details, crisp fonts and clean hairlines are important you might want to go the extra mile.

Try to avoid Images

The main disadvantages of rasterized images are their big file size and that they don’t scale well to different sizes without affecting the image quality. Great alternatives to rasterized graphics are CSS, Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and Icon Fonts.

If you have any chance to build graphical elements of your app in CSS go for it. You can use it to add gradients, borders, rounded corners, shadows, arrows, rotate elements and much more.

Here are a few examples of interaction elements in Blossom that are implemented in CSS. The subtle gradient is powered by CSS gradients and the custom font in use on this button is Kievit served via Typekit. No images.
In the following screenshot the only two images used are the user avatar and the blue stamp. Everything else – the circled question mark, the dark grey arrow next to it, the popover, its shadow and the arrow on top of it are all pure HTML and CSS.

Here you can see how projects in Blossom look like. It’s a screenshot of a project’s website used as cover on a stack of paper sheets. The paper sheets are implemented with divs that are rotated using CSS.

Also the circled arrow in the righthand side of the screenshot below is pure CSS.

Here are some awesome tools that can help you to save time when you are creating effects using CSS.

CSS Generator:
Cross browser CSS3 syntax by @RandyJensen.
CSS3Generator by @RandyJensen

CSS Arrows:
CSS for tooltip arrows by @ShojBerg.

Generating CSS for Sprites:
Sprite Cow helps you get the background-position, width and height of sprites within a spritesheet as a nice bit of copyable css. It’s built by TheTeam and it’s a real time saver and definitely worth giving a try.
Generate CSS for sprite sheets

The main advantage of SVG is that unlike rasterized graphics they scale reasonably well to various sizes. If you have simple shapes they usually are also way smaller than PNGs and are often used for things like charts.

Icon Fonts are often used as a replacement for image sprites. Similar to SVG they can be scaled up infinitely without any loss of quality and are usually smaller in size compared to image sprites. On top of that you can use CSS to change their size, color and even add effects like shadows.
Both SVG and Icon Fonts are well supported by modern browsers.

Retina ready Favicons

Favicons are really important for users who want to have an overview about which app belongs to which browser tab. A Retina ready Favicon will not only be easier to identify but also stand out among a crowd of Favicons that are not optimized for high resolution devices yet.

To make your Favicon Retina ready I can highly recommend X-Icon Editor. You can either upload a single image and let the editor resize it for different dimensions or you can upload separate images optimized for each size to get the best results.

How to make existing Images Retina ready

If you want to upgrade an app with existing images it is a bit more work as you need to re-create all images to make them Retina ready but this doesn’t need to be super hard.

First of all try to identify images that you can avoid by using alternatives like CSS, SVG and Image Fonts as mentioned previously. Buttons, Icons and other common UI widgets usually can be replaced with modern solutions that don’t require any images.

In case you actually need to re-create rasterized images you need to go back to your source files. As you might assume, simply resizing your rasterized bitmap images twice as big doesn’t get the job done because all the details and borders get pixelated.

But no need to despair – image compositions which mostly contain vectors i.e. in Adobe Photoshop or Illustrator are quite easy to scale up. That said don’t forget to check if your Photoshop effects in the blending options such as strokes, shadows and bevels still look as intended.

In general, making most Photoshop Compositions directly out of vectors (shapes) and Photoshop’s Smart Objects will save you a lot of time in the future.

How to optimize the File Size of Images
Last but not least optimizing the file size of all images in an application or website could effectively save up to 90% of image loading times. When it comes to retina images, the file size reduction gets even more important as they have a higher pixel density which also increases their file size.

In Photoshop you can optimize the image filesize via the “Save for Web” feature. On top of that there is an amazing free tool called ImageAlpha, which can reduce the filesize of your images even more with just a minor loss of quality.

Unlike with Photoshop you can use ImageApha to convert 24-bit alpha channel PNGs to 8-bit PNGs with alpha channel support. The icing on the cake is that these optimized images are cross-browser compatible and even work for IE6.
You can play around with different settings in ImageAlpha to get the right trade-off between quality and file-size. In the case below we can reduce the file size by almost 80%.

When you are done setting your desired compression levels ImageAlpha’s save dialog also offers you to “Optimize with ImageOptim” - another awesome free tool.

ImageOptim automatically picks the best compression options for your image and removes unnecessary meta information and color profiles. In the case of our stamp file ImageOptim was able to reduce our file size by another 34%.

After we’ve updated all assets of Blossom for high resolution displays and used ImageAlpha & ImageOptim to optimize the file size we actually ended up saving a few kb in comparison to the assets we had before.

Save Time, read this Book

If you want to learn more about how to get your apps ready for retina displays I can highly recommend "Retinafy your web sites & apps" by Thomas Fuchs. It’s a straightforward step by step guide which saved me a lot of time and nerves

Awesome Retina Ready Sites on the Web
Chat and Tasks for Teams
Simple version control for designers
Panic - Shockingly Good Software.

You can find the Blog Version of this Post here:

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Posted on 8 May 2013

Which tools and services do you use in your work?

In Bufys.com we use:

Code and Development:
Sublime - The text editor you'll fall in love with
Sass - Syntactically Awesome Stylesheets
Compass - Compass Documentation
Ruby on Rails
Chrome Browser
BrowserStack - Cross Browser Testing Tool

Pivotaltracker - Excellent to track development. Not that good for company wide processes.
HubFlow: GitFlow For GitHub - Excellent adaptation of GitFlow.

Hosting etc:
GoDaddy - DNS
Amazon S3 - For static assets

Mixpanel -  Just awesome
Google Analytics - Complement to Mixpanel.
Google Webmaster Tools - SEO and site Health


AirDrop (MacOS)

Useful Heroku Addons:
Airbrake - Error notification
PubNub - Push notifications
Papertrail - Logging
SendGrid - Mailing
New Relic - Performance Reporting

Useful Rails Gems:
asset_sync - Serve assets outside of your app (less requests)
awesome_print - Amazing for inspecting elements
Haml - Forget outdated Html sintax
sitemap_generator - Automatic and sustainable sitemap generation

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Posted on 5 May 2013

Which tools and services do you use in your work?

to name a few...

EDIT (MAY 17, 2014): Recently I made drastic changes to my front-end workflow. I no longer use Sublime Text. I went for the IDE route with WebStorm. It's just feels way better when you're punching tons of javascript. Also I no longer use CodeKit. All my task running needs are now covered by Gulp.js.

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Posted on 4 May 2013

How does the Google Chrome Harlem Shake code work?

In non-technical terms, the code snippet above does the following:

1) Finds "large" content on the page. This can be a box containing text, or larger images, anything that is actually visible. Note that most web pages have a lot of elements defined in code, but not very visible (if at all) on the page.

2) For each element, it assignes a specific "class name". This allows the script to identify the elements at any point.

3) It loads the audio file from http://s3.amazonaws.com/moovweb-...

4) It loads a CSS file from http://s3.amazonaws.com/moovweb-.... The CSS file defines how the elements "shake", for how long and other similar properties. The CSS file actually uses the "class names" defined before to identify the larger blocks on the web page, for full effect.

The author must have used a code minifier just to make it easier for everyone to use (Online YUI Compressor is an example). I used an Online JavaScript beautifier to reformat the code and it's pretty easy to see what's going on for technical people/programmers, even if functions and variables have been renamed to only be one character in length: ClaudiuC/Chrome Harlem Shake.

Edit: This wouldn't really be possible without HTML5's audio standard and CSS3 animations.

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Posted on 18 February 2013

What advice would you give a web developer that has been out of the game since Netscape was around but is now getting back in?

The job as you remember it doesn't really exist anymore.

The ability to run and configure a web server and edit HTML to create some simple web pages has lost almost all of its value. What does have value is learning how to build and support web applications with teams. A few pointers to embark on a career doing that:

  • Don't use the term "webmaster". The kids will just look at you with a blank stare.
  • Get a thorough re-education in CSS and go through the most commonly used frameworks (Foundation, Bootstrap, YUI).
  • Go through Nicole Sullivan's OOCSS lectures and libraries. It will change the way you use CSS.
  • Learn HTML5 and study up on the differences between IE, Chrome, Firefox, and Safari, both on the desktop and on iOS/Android browsers.
  • Relearn JavaScript. Learn JQuery inside and out.
  • Learn one or more of Ruby/Rails, Python, PHP, and/or NodeJS.
  • Learn about JavaScript client MVC frameworks like Backbone.
  • Get a GitHub account and go through and deconstruct as many projects as you can.
  • Take 100 quality consumer internet sites and deconstruct them. Look at their use of CSS and JavaScript and 3rd party libraries in particular.
  • Understand the commonly-used content management frameworks like Drupal and Wordpress as well as build-a-website services like Wix, Weebly, and Webs.
  • Learn about AWS, Heroku, Rackspace, and other hosting options. You should almost never need to touch a server.
  • Learn Photoshop or Fireworks.
  • Learn to fully-utilize browsers' debug tools like FireBug, Chrome Developer Tools, IE Developer Tools, etc... this will make development 1000x easier.

(Please others add to this list).

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Posted on 26 September 2012

What are the most important client-side (HTML5/CSS/JavaScript) libraries and why?

Since the original answer was written back in 2012, let me update my current preferred 2015 client side stack:

As a dessert for those quickly built sites you can load Bootstrap & Font Awesome directly from Bootstrap CDN (http://www.bootstrapcdn.com/)

Lets take a quick round around the track and see the essentials for any client-side athlete. The equipment depends on your goal range.

Palms sweating, heart pumping. Ready for another race. Go!

Accelerating into the first corner
(Happily, HTML5Boilerplate gives you all this out from the box, so you'll get a headstart. Winning!)

Making good headway, just don't stop now!

Time to show what you've got!

Aiming for the big boys. Give everything you have!

Fistpump for victory. Also, check out these goodies.

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Posted on 22 August 2012

What are the most important client-side (HTML5/CSS/JavaScript) libraries and why?

Seems most people are writing answers as if there could be a definitive factual response.

Unfortunately there is no simple answer to this question because the answer depends on the context of what the project requirements are, as well as the skills of the developer working on the project. Developers may want to hack their own stuff together and use a utility library to assist them, where another developer may want a full framework to do everything for them.

In my own example I prefer a small foot print as far as 3rd party libraries go but I think the following libraries are the most important and useful (to me)...

  • RequireJS:
    AMD module loader which lets you have a very modular code base (which is great for development) and it also provides a build tool so you can concatenate and minify your separate modules into a single file for production.
  • jQuery:
    Most people know what this library is by now. But just to clarify that this library can be hideously inefficient and badly performing when placed into the hands of a developer who doesn't understand what it going on under the library's API. But in the hands of someone who knows what they're doing this library can be a very helpful and useful DOM manipulation/ajax/animation library (more so now in their recent 1.8 release which had a complete rewrite of the animation code base).
  • Backbone.js:
    This library lets you architect your code to the MVC design pattern. It's very light weight and although not a strict implementation of MVC can be very useful to help give some kind of structure to your code (it also works very well with RequireJS)
  • HTML5Shiv:
    A simple library that lets older Internet Explorer browsers (IE8 and below) to render unknown elements - which may sound like an odd to want the browser to do, but the purpose is so developers to utilise the new HTML5 elements like <section> and <article> etc.
  • Normalize.css:
    This is a CSS style sheet that doesn't *reset* the default browser styles (which seems to be all the rage at the moment even though it's a bad practice). It instead patches some inconsistent browser rendering bugs across different browsers.
  • OOCSS:
    Object-Oriented CSS isn't a library but a methodology. There are quite a few different ideas on how OOCSS should be written (www.smacss.com is one popular method).
  • Sass:
    This is a CSS pre-processor which let's the developer take advantage of features not natively available in CSS (such as variables and functions and modular code with the ability to import into a single file).

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Posted on 19 August 2012

What are the most important client-side (HTML5/CSS/JavaScript) libraries and why?

A kickstart...
http://jquery.com | jQuery: for manipulating the DOM
http://d3js.org | d3: kinda like jQuery for SVG elements
http://processingjs.org | Processing.js: for manipulating canvas elements
http://backbonejs.org | Backbone.js: for managing client-side data structures
http://underscorejs.org | Underscore.js: powerful functional programming ideas
http://twitter.github.com/bootstrap | Twitter Bootstrap: accelerates UI styling and events
http://modernizr.com | Modernizr: browser feature detection
http://www.mathjax.org | MathJax: Latex math formulas in the browser
http://html5boilerplate.com/ | HTML5 Boilerplate: Industry-standard starting point for HTML5-based pages or sites
http://browserify.org/ | Browserify: enables browser-side require() the node.js way
http://handlebarsjs.com/ | Handlerbars.js: templating

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Posted on 7 August 2012

What are typical screen-width breakpoints that should be considered for CSS media queries when designing a responsive website?

No, it's not safe. Since Ethan Marcotte's book came out, the discussion and work on the topic continued. Most experts agree that you shouldn't make assumptions on the devices used to access your website, due to the incredible variety of mobile devices.

Instead, you should design a fluid, responsive layout, and use breakpoints whenever your content needs them. Whether you start responsive first or mobile first, keep changing the width of the browser, and when you feel your layout isn't working at a particular width and needs to be adjusted, define your own breakpoint and adapt the layout.

Summing it up: it's your content and your design that defines the breakpoint, not the width of the most popular device in a particular moment in time.


Disruption will only accelerate.

(from: http://futurefriend.ly/)

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Posted on 16 June 2012

For an interview, what HTML5, CSS3, and JS concepts should I master?

Here is a short list of what any good HTML5 front-end application developers should know:

  1. Understand that HTML5 is HTML and that the same application model is applicable. So, no new magical development paradigm was brought with HTML5 (outside of Canvas/WebGL, which is totally new), just browsers are more robust, much faster, and more capable.
  2. Understand that many of the effects in CSS3 are available in IE7 & IE8  with proprietary Microsoft CSS attributes. (rounded corners being the main exception). So, if a client wants to do "HTML5" looking app in IE7+, it is totally possible by use the "MS/IE7" old CSS properties and JavaScript animation lib like jQuery animate.
  3. Understand that JavaScript is completely Object Oriented, and that there is no need to have some meta-framework like Sencha to do good OO in Javascript. See an article I wrote here: http://britesnow.com/html5/javas...
  4. Understand the power of HTML and CSS for good component layout. Twitter/Bootstrap is a great (and probably the best) example of this. Simple HTML structure with simple CSS classes, and you can get some great reusable UI elements. 
  5. Understand that decoupling UI layout/style from behavior (i.e. JS) brings a great deal of performance and flexibility. This could be described as the Twitter/Boostrap way vs the Sencha one. The former has a great decoupling between the HTML/CSS code and the JavaScript (which is not needed to get the layout/style), and the later, Sencha intermingles everything in a foreign all-in-one component UI and OO language (high-learning curve and high-degree of lock-in). (in other words, avoid Sencha like frameworks)
  6. Understand the pros/cons of CSS animations vs JavaScript ones. The pros for CSS transitions is that it is easier for browsers to optimize them, Safari on Mobile/PC and Chrome on PC  even move them to GPUs. The cons is that CSS transitions do not work on older browsers (IE 7 & 8) and that they do not offer much controls (e.g., can't really stop them and no curve path).
  7. Understand the benefits and the "Why" of the Web Workers. In short, it's a way to do multi-threaded work in a single threaded environment. Before HTML5, the only way was with Ajax, and therefore including a server in the picture, now it can just be all local.
  8. Understand the Canvas vs SVG. This one is a tricky one, as there are lot of "social-engineering" baggage behind the technical aspects. On the technical side, SVG is a DOM approach to vector graphic (and consequently retained mode) whereas Canvas is a programmatic and immediate mode approach. The catch is that sometime it seems that Canvas gets a little bit more "love" from the browser vendor developers as SVG always had a love and hate relationship with HTML from its beginning.
  9. DOM Centric MVC. Ok, this is more an opinion than a fact, but given my expertise, HTML5 application developer (not web page developers) needs to have a good understanding of what is MVC, and realize that they do not need "do-it-all" meta frameworks do do MVC in HTML. In fact, with little DOM extension, it is relatively easy do do MVC the DOM way.
  10. onload
    vs jQuery
    : which one trigger first? This is a great low level question to ask to anybody that claim they know jQuery. In short, onload trigger after, and
    trigger before and is a normalization brought by jQuery.

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Posted on 3 June 2012

What is the best method for adding 2x images to webpages that will be displayed on the new iPad with Retina graphics?

WebKit deals in logical pixels and a device pixel ratio to render stuff. It knows nothing about the physical pixels of the display. So when you really have 640x960 pixels on the display, your iPhone's Safari will tell you that you have 320x480 pixels to work with a device pixel ratio of 2. If you try to supply an image without any hints, it'll try to render the image at 1x scale in twice the width/height you want (which will be upscaled). However you can give it some hints to tell it what to render at. And this technique is applicable both to iOS devices (which have 1x and 2x scale devices) and Android devices (which have 0.75x, 1x, 1.5x, and 2x scale devices).

Let's pretend you have a source image that is 200x200 at 1x scale, and 400x400 at 2x scale.

If you'd like to use <img> tags to render images, you can pass your 2x scale image as the src, as long as you set the width/height to 200x200 (either as tag attributes or as CSS styles). This is generally not preferable, as you can't really differentiate between different scaled devices this way (unless you're using JavaScript, and at that point you might as well use the next technique). But if you only want to make one asset one time, and don't mind the extra bandwidth, you can use this approach.

The best approach is to use CSS background and background-image to supply your images. The trick here is to use the CSS background-size property to set the render size of the image at 1x (in this case, background-size: 200px 200px). You can combine this with CSS background-position to achieve sprited assets (where you put all your images into one giant image and slice out the relevant parts of it).

The big advantage here is that you can target specific screen scale factors with CSS, using a trick known as CSS media queries. This lets you specify entire CSS files, or parts of CSS files, to load for devices at 1x scale, at 2x scale, and other scales (as well as ranges of scales). This means that 1x scale devices are only loading 1x assets, and 2x scale devices are only loading 2x scale assets. The best way to do this is split your assets into multiple CSS files, and load them using the media attribute, like so:

<link rel="stylesheet" href="1x.css" media="only screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1)" />
<link rel="stylesheet" href="2x.css" media="only screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 2)" />

You can also do this in one CSS file like so:

@media only screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 1){
.image{ ... }

@media only screen and (-webkit-device-pixel-ratio: 2){
.image{ ... }

There are also -webkit-min-device-pixel-ratio and -webkit-max-device-pixel-ratio selectors you can use, so you can use specific assets for a range of device pixel ratios (which matters if you're targeting Android). The scaling will Just Work across all device pixel ratios when you do this.

You can also query for this property in JavaScript. window.devicePixelRatio will return 1 for 1x scale, 1.5 for 1.5x, 2 for 2x, etc.

UPDATE: As of iOS 5.1, it appears there is an issue with high-resolution JPG images being presented in this manner. WebKit on Retina iPads will downscale the image and then upscale it again, leading to a significantly uglier image. The only known workaround is to use PNG images instead of JPGs (which obviously sucks for high-resolution images, which consume significantly more bandwidth than JPGs). Apple has been made aware of this issue: rdar://problem/11097671. If your image contains greater than 2 * 1024 * 1024 (2097152) pixels when you multiply the width and height together, you must use PNGs, or the image will not appear crisp on the Retina display.

UPDATE 2: There is supposedly a way to work around this, by saving JPEGs in Progressive mode. There is a "Progressive" checkbox in Photoshop's Save For Web which enables this. I haven't tested this myself, but multiple people have reported that it works. Thanks to Iain Anderson in the comments below, as well as codezero on Hacker News.

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Posted on 19 March 2012

Which CSS effect can blur the background of a page?

Behold, there is a pure CSS solution, using CSS3 Filter Effects and the new
property. Unfortunately, as of September 2013, support is limited to Chrome, Safari 6+, and Opera 15+.

.background {     
    -webkit-filter: blur(10px);     
    filter: blur(10px);      

For more information:

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Posted on 18 March 2012

Which is better: Less, Compass or Sass?

LESS has a cleaner, less verbose syntax, fitting with the name. I agree that it is easier to learn as well. I like to use the following tools along with LESS:

  • Preboot.less: Useful mixins and variables from the main guy behind Twitter Bootstrap. Not a giant framework like Bootstrap, just some useful stuff for buttons, gradients, columns, etc. http://markdotto.com/bootstrap/

  • Compilers:

    • SimpLESS: Similar to less.app but cross-platform, converts LESS to CSS on save. http://wearekiss.com/simpless

    • Winless: Similar to Less.app or SimpLESS but Windows obviously. http://winless.org/

    • CrunchApp: A text editor just for LESS that saves to CSS, uses Adobe Air. Useful if your favorite code editor is not LESS friendly. (Although it is similar enough to CSS that if you can have the editor use CSS code highlighting it should be good enough. http://crunchapp.net/

    • Livereload or CodeKit: Two awesome tools, unfortunately Mac only,  Livereload can be made to work on Windows but its tricky. These both automatically reload web pages you are working on whenever you save changes. Cool tools that do much more than LESS, but they do both convert LESS to CSS on save.

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Posted on 17 February 2012

In what order do CSS definitions take priority?

CSS declarations are applied in this order (from lowest to highest priority):
  • user agent declarations (the default styles your browser applies to elements)
  • user normal declarations (a user's own stylesheet if they're using one)
  • author normal declarations (this is your normal stylesheet)
  • author important declarations (anything your mark important)
  • user important declarations (any important styles from the user's stylesheet)

Any conflicting rules are resolved within each level first, sometimes with specificity, or failing that, the last rule wins. Specificity is a number defined as:
  • a: 1 if the declaration is from an inline style attribute, 0 otherwise
  • b: the number of IDs in the selector (#one #two would be 2)
  • c: the number of other attributes and pseudo-classes (:focus would be 1)
  • d: the number of element names and pseudo-elements (div would be 1)

i.e an inline style would have a specificity of 1000, whereas a declaration in your stylesheet might have a specificity of 0100 or 0010 etc. - this is why inline styles override styles from stylesheets.

But, since the rules are applied in the order above, an important rule in a stylesheet can override an inline style (since author important styles are applied after author normal styles). e.g:

p {
  color: black !important;
<p style="color: red">Will be black</p>

Rules in later declarations take precedence over rules in earlier declarations, so declarations in a style tag can override the declarations from a linked stylesheet if the style tag appears after the link tag. The rules mean you can use a normal stylesheet to override a user's own stylesheet, but you can never override any styles the user marks as !important.

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Posted on 3 July 2011

Is it necessary to learn HTML/CSS before HTML5/CSS3?

Learning HTML5/CSS3 is learning HTML/CSS. They're just the newest versions of the languages. If you learn one version of HTML or CSS, it's fairly trivial to write in another version.
This is especially true for CSS3, which is really just an expansion on previous CSS versions. It's kind of like asking if you should learn to drive a car without cruise control and a sunroof before learning how to drive a car with those features.

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Posted on 25 January 2011

When should web developers/designers begin to use HTML5/CSS3?

Today :)
There's no reason to wait for W3C (you'll probably grow old).

You can easily start using CSS3 shadows, rounded corners, border images, some transformations etc. All modern browsers support them (IE9 soon).

The best part is that if a browser does not support for example box-shadow, it won't break your web page. CSS is just for styling the markup and un-supported styling won't do much damage (if any).

The same goes for html5. Just try to have a fallback, especially for essential content like video players (e.g. use a flash fallback for html5 video).

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Posted on 19 January 2011

What is the best framework for creating mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript?

From my experience, I would be very careful with HTML Mobile Framework. They tend to be heavy and require lot of CSS/HTML elements.

My recommendation is to use jQuery and target webkit (iOS and Android) and try to optimize your DOM and UI component as much as possible. Then, you can degrade for other browsers.

If you are building a offline application, you can use a MVC. I built one (Brite https://github.com/BriteSnow/brite) which is a MVC/MVP framework on top of jQuery.

Anyway, the rule is that the less framework you use the better you are. So, pick carefully, and make sure they are not kitchen sink.

Often a custom component is much better than a big generic one that is hard to customize and take too much resources.

Frameworks to avoid IMO are: jQueryMobile, jQueryUI, SenchaTouch, Sencha...

Keep it simple and lightweight, and avoid any frameworks that requires double passes (meaning, add to the DOM, and travers the DOM to activate the components).

Also look at an HTML5 Architecture doc I wrote: HTML5 Enterprise Application Architecture

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Posted on 6 January 2011

When is it appropriate to use tables in HTML?

The question you need to ask yourself is, is the data I want to put into this grid actually tabular data.  If it is, use a table. If it's not, then don't.

But what is tabular data. Based on the number of times I've seen someone wrongly claim lists or other structures to be tabular data, I'm going to try to offer a definition that's easy to use.

If you can look at the contents of the table and say to yourself, all of the items in this particular column share something in common that makes them distinct from those other columns AND all the items in this particular row share something in common that makes them distinct from those other rows, then you probably have tabular data and it probably makes sense to organize it in a table.

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Posted on 2 January 2011

What is the best framework for creating mobile apps with HTML, CSS, and JavaScript?

There are Frameworks, Tools, and Libraries.

They can be categorized into three groups:

1.  Use another language and compiles a native app in one or more platforms.
  • Titanium Appcelerator (html/js/css -> iPhone/Android/Blackberry)
  • Ansca Mobile (ActionScript, Lua -> iPhone/Android)

2. Embed your native platform language to expose certain native features to web app.
  • PhoneGap
  • QuickConnect

3.  Create Touch device optimized/native look and feel web apps.
  • Sencha
  • jQTouch
  • xui
  • PastryKit
  • jQuery Mobile

So far I haven't seen anything that renders native UI based on runtime content.
I think that would be an interesting product especially for startups that are so used to metric driven, quick iteration development cycles.

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Posted on 8 October 2010

Which is better: Less, Compass or Sass?

Having recently tackled this same question, my answer is SASS.

I specifically liked having to explicitly declare mixins. IMO it's easier to understand when others dive in to your code.

I also originally looked at LESS because it gave me the option to gradually roll out new code, however, the latest version of SASS/SCSS takes care of that. It also gives you the ability to use both SCSS & SASS (which is a really beautiful and simple syntax)

Lastly, Compass for SASS is pretty amazing. Check it out - http://compass-style.org.

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Posted on 5 October 2010

What is the best unit to use to declare font-size on the web?

Garann's answer is right on the money.

The primary historical reason for using relative font sizes was that browsers with text zoom functionality would refuse to scale absolute font sizes. This was a big problem for users with bad eyesight, and even for users who just prefer reading larger fonts. Now, though, things have changed, and every major browser except IE6 will properly scale all fonts, regardless of whether the sizes are absolute or relative, so accessibility is no longer a major concern.

Since most browsers are now able to scale absolute font sizes, many web designers and developers have begun to use absolute sizes again, because relative sizes have several drawbacks:

  • Relative sizes tend to be a pain to work with. It requires you to keep a mental map of relative sizes to absolute sizes (or look them up in a reference).
  • Relative sizes often result in fractions, which (depending on the browser and OS) can make fonts look blurry.
  • Relative sizes plus cascading styles sometimes equals unexpected behavior. If class .parent sets the font size to 93% and class .child (which applies to an element that's a child of .parent) sets it to 100%, then .child's size is actually 100% of 93%, not 100% of the original 100%.

Absolute sizes solve these problems and are generally easier to work with, at the expense of being less accessible for IE6 users, which, these days, is typically an acceptable tradeoff.

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Posted on 14 May 2010

reddit.com: search results

Huge list of CSS3 Resources,Tutorials and Libraries to Help You Become a Novice to Expert ...

All the web designers(beginners or intermediates) around the world are excited about the power of CSS3 and the flexibility it offers. With that in mind, I’ve rounded up here a huge list of CSS3 resources, tutorials, tips for you to learn more. In this list I’ve also gathered you some of the best sources of CSS3 goodness.

In order to fully enjoy this gallery you might want to use a modern browser such as Chrome.

CSS3 Resources

*The ultimate list of CSS3 resources, tips, and Tutorials - Really an ultimate article for CSS3 beginners that also has advanced resources

*Push Your Web Design Into The Future With CSS3 - Here are five techniques snatched from the future that you can put into practice in your website designs today.

CSS3 Tutorials

The tutorials are extremely helpful, not only for the professionals, but, also for the beginners.

Swatch Book with CSS3 and jQuery - creating an animated swatch book using CSS rotation transforms and JavaScript.

3D Thumbnail Hover Effects - A tutorial about how to create 3D thumbnail hover effects with CSS 3D transforms and jQuery.

Create a stunning menu in CSS3 - open up your favorite code editor, and let’s make a slick navigation menu using only CSS3.

Custom Drop-Down List Styling - A tutorial on how to create some custom drop-down lists

Making an Impressive Product Showcase with CSS3 - Spicing up a plain old product page with some CSS3 magic!

Animated 3D Bar Chart with CSS3 - A tutorial on how to create an animated 3d bar chart using CSS only.

A Pure CSS3 Cycling Slideshow - This effect will only work properly in modern browsers that support the CSS3 properties.

How to Create an Interactive Graph using CSS3 & jQuery - Code an Interactive Graph using jQuery and CSS3.

Create a Sticky Note Effect in 5 Easy Steps with CSS3 and HTML5

Apple-like Login Form with CSS 3D Transforms - In this tutorial you will see how one can use transforms to create an interesting flipping effect on an Apple-inspired form

How To Create Depth And Nice 3D Ribbons Only Using CSS3 - It is an interesting article that everyone should try the field.

7 Super Easy CSS Recipes to Copy and Paste - Keep in mind that since this stuff is still cutting edge, older browsers won’t support most of it.

How to Create a Stylish Image Content Slider in Pure CSS3 - Use this tutorial just to play around with the last CSS3 features that you will be able to use in the feature.

CSS3 breadcrumbs - Learn how to create your own cool CSS3 breadcrumbs.

Calendar using jQuery and CSS3 - How to Create Calendar using jQuery and CSS3

Orman Clark's Vertical Navigation Menu: The CSS3 Version

Some of the excellent CSS3 Tutorials for Beautiful Design - 50 more resources (some may be repeated)

CSS3 Libraries and Examples

Blur Menu - This is a really well executed and polished demo of a CSS only menu.

CSS3D Clouds - In this demo app you can generate and play around with some astonishingly realistic clouds.

Logos In Pure CSS - Company logos created in pure CSS.

CSS A/Z - An entirely HTML/CSS animated sketch for each letter made (hopefully) every day for 26 days.

Navigation Bar by Jan Kadera - A simple but very stylish navigation bar

Google Doodle in CSS - CSS version of a little Google Doodle animation.

Sliding Image Panels - This is smooth as butter, uses absolutely no JS and the details are polished to the last pixel.

Double ring - A beautiful animated ring in a single div element

Colorful CSS3 Animated Navigation Menu - How to create a colorful navigation menu with animated dropdowns. (No cheating!)

Animate.css - This is hugely popular on github

Spinkit - Spinkit is a collection of easily customizable loading indicators

Buttons - Nothing more, nothing less, just a huge collection of buttons.

On/Off FlipSwitch - Generate pure CSS3 On/Off flipswitches with animated transitions.

Colors.css - Colors.css is for those of you who hate color picking for a hex code.

CSS3 Video Tutorials

CSS3 Video tutorials - 51 videos

submitted by steveharrry to learnprogramming
[link] [21 comments]

Posted on 17 March 2015

Learn HTML5 and CSS3 in under a week. [Update - 150 free coupons]

After my earlier post, we hit over 100 students enrolled. That's 100 soon to be web developers breaking down the programming "wall". Some of my students have already began getting customers to build websites for them! After my previous post I received many positive messages as well as some people that truly wanted to learn, but missed the chance of getting a free coupon. Since Reddit has been so awesome, I'm giving away 150 free coupons for this subreddit. My goal is to get over 250 students learning and enrolled by tonight!


If you used a coupon, make sure to up vote this so we can get everyone we can enrolled!

Update: We just hit 223 enrolled students, that's 223 people that will finally get past the programming "wall" and on their way to becoming web-developers!!

Update 2: Incredible, we hit our goal with 257 enrolled students! Here's one last coupon for those who missed! https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=Reddit30

After that, I'm going to heavily discount the course for everyone on this subreddit to only $19: https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=RedditDiscount

Due to all the awesome feedback, I've decided to lower the cost of this course even more to $15 https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=Reddit15

Also, this is my first course I created on Udemy, I'd love feedback and see what you guys liked/disliked so I can make my next possible course even better.

Just a quick update: We've hit almost 300 enrolled students today!

To address the 3-star issue: This is because I've received my first 1 star review. I've tried multiple times to get in touch with him both during the course and when he posted the review. He hasn't responded to a single message yet and looking at my students he only got through 5% of the course when he put in that review. For whoever this was, I'd love it if you can get in touch with me so we can figure something out :-)

Final update: We've hit 317 enrolled students. I've gotten a ton of positive feedback as well as what people liked/disliked. After this success I've decided that I'm most likely going to be making a much more in depth Web Development course. Anybody who purchases this course will automatically get it free once it's released!

submitted by PrettyCoolGuy13 to learnprogramming
[link] [95 comments]

Posted on 1 February 2015

Hey! I launched my HTML5 and CSS3 Udemy course and I’m offering it free to Reddit for today

Hey guys, I launched my first course last week with some good feedback (5 star reviews) so far and have already got students building websites for others! Pretty awesome! I'd love others to be doing the same and help those beginners trying to get past that programming "wall". Just use the following link: https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=RedditRocks Update: Awesome, all of the free coupons codes got used up, so here's another one for the rest of the day: https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=RedditRocks2 Update 2: Thank you so much for all the interest Reddit! Here's the last free one: https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=RedditRocks3

After that, since Reddit is so awesome, everybody on here gets over 60% off: https://www.udemy.com/html5-and-css3-become-a-web-development-ninja/?couponCode=RedditDiscount Can't wait to see you in class! :-)

Update: I've decided to extend the 60% off coupon to everybody on here forever :-)

submitted by PrettyCoolGuy13 to learnprogramming
[link] [21 comments]

Posted on 31 January 2015

Hey! I updated my HTML5 and CSS3 course and giving it away free on Reddit this week

I've updated my "HTML and CSS Course for Beginners" and am giving it away free on Reddit this week. We have over 10,000 people in the course with great reviews, but now have it on a new platform that I want to test out and make sure it works well so I'm offering it free this week. I'd love to have you sign up and let me know what you think about the platform.

Once you sign up you have lifetime access to the material. Go here to sign up and get it for free: http://courses.makerbased.com/course/html-and-css/?couponCode=redditVIP


submitted by bonesy2286 to learnprogramming
[link] [152 comments]

Posted on 12 November 2014

What are the benefits of site logos fully made in CSS3 over SVG?

For responsive design, I know SVG is the go-to format and most sites have SVG logos of their company/brand on their site headers. But is there any benefit to having the logos made entirely in CSS as opposed to drawing out a vector in Illustrator and saving a SVG of it?

With all the recent updates to CSS3, it's very possible to make many logos solely via CSS. For example, here's a lot of company logos re-created in CSS3: http://www.bchanx.com/logos-in-pure-css-demo

I'm looking to see if there's any real reason someone would want to do this, especially in terms of long-term sustainable web practices. If anyone can shed some light on the subject, I'd appreciate it.

submitted by QuestionAxer to web_design
[link] [22 comments]

Posted on 10 August 2014

I saw this GIF and I thought it would be interesting to recreate it using CSS3. (x-post /r/WebDev)

This GIF is very soothing and I thought it might look interesting if I could recreate it using CSS3 animation.

I created a script in PHP that allowed me to generate the percentages and degree values to get the flow correct, and to keep me from having to copy and paste over and over for all the browser specific prefixes.

Remove the "overflow: hidden;" property of ".graphic" to see the full circle, which feels just as, if not more, soothing as the semi-circle.


submitted by arobson13 to css
[link] [8 comments]

Posted on 29 June 2014

I saw this GIF and I thought it would be interesting to recreate it using CSS3.

This GIF is very soothing and I thought it might look interesting if I could recreate it using CSS3 animation.

I created a script in PHP that allowed me to generate the percentages and degree values to get the flow correct, and to keep me from having to copy and paste over and over for all the browser specific prefixes.

Remove the "overflow: hidden;" property of ".graphic" to see the full circle, which feels just as, if not more, soothing as the semi-circle.


submitted by arobson13 to webdev
[link] [78 comments]

Posted on 29 June 2014

CSS3 Might Allow Dual Flairs

Reddit recently added support for CSS3 in subreddit css. One new feature of that is multiple background images. I think (based on brief testing) that this javascript snippet in your browser's console will create an unholy combination in my test comment below.

Note: some of the hovering features will be disabled because I'm removing things to get around the CSS that's already on flair.

$(".flair-georgiatech").removeClass("flair-georgiatech").removeClass("flair").attr("href","asdfad").html(" ").addClass("flair-testytest").css({"background-image":"url(http://a.espncdn.com/combiner/i?img=/i/teamlogos/ncaa/500/59.png&transparent=true), url(http://a.espncdn.com/combiner/i?img=/i/teamlogos/ncaa/500/61.png&transparent=true)","width":"60px","height":"30px","background-position":"left center, right center","background-repeat":"no-repeat","background-size":"30px","min-width":"60px","min-height":"30px","display":"block"});

submitted by epmatsw to CFB
[link] [30 comments]

Posted on 29 April 2014

Did you notice that the up vote rockets now have animation?

/u/doombeef was the 1st to post about reddit now allowing css v3 for subreddit usage.


So, what's in store for /r/dogecoin next, animated flairs?

Note: The Only way to turn off the new animations is to uncheck the "allow subreddits to show me custom styles" box in preferences under display options.


Welcome to r/dogecoin! This thread is for questions about Dogecar and Dogecoin, so ask away



This is like the doge version of catnip!


Makes me want to do a Barrel Roll!


submitted by slowpokex2 to dogecoin
[link] [419 comments]

Posted on 29 April 2014

Naut 2.1: CSS3 Additions!

Not a very exciting update (yet!), but I wanted to push out some general CSS3 additions that were enabled just now by reddit.


  • Added transitions to several objects such as the tabmenu and submission links.
  • Added minor tweaks for low-resolutions. Try resizing your browser window to see.
  • Fixed filter error.

Unfortunately I'm leaving for a rather long holiday soon so I won't be able to update but I'll definitely do more with it when I get back. I'm not sure how push requests on GitHub work but if you have a nice tweak - give it a shot!

Moderators that already use /r/Naut can just copy paste this bit to add the transition stuff.

When you update, the stylesheet might give an error because the filter property was removed. You have to search and find every instance of it (there are about 5) and remove the whole line. The layout won't be affected.


submitted by Cryptonaut to naut
[link] [31 comments]

Posted on 29 April 2014

Now that reddit allows css3...

Cant we now get the upvote to go upwards(I cant seem to find the post about it, but someone already made the code, they just couldnt implement it due to the old restrictions on what the subreddits could put in the css)

Edit: I found this: http://www.reddit.com/r/dogecoin/comments/23797m/based_on_the_gif_posted_here_earlier_i_wrote_a/ Its not exactly what I was looking for(I remember an actual css code that someone posted) but it shouldnt be that hard to write from scratch, just a few animations of the upvote going upwards and on the moon)

submitted by dombeef to dogecoin
[link] [50 comments]

Posted on 29 April 2014

CSS Change: The filter has been rewritten.

As mentioned in the /r/changelog thread, reddit's CSS filter has been replaced. The new filter is based on tinycss2 which tokenizes CSS for us and allows reddit to apply a whitelist of functions and properties to the CSS.

Existing stylesheets will not be affected by this new filter until the next time you try to save changes.

Bad news

  • IE versions older than IE8 no longer get subreddit CSS. We don't support these browsers for core development on reddit.com anyway and they are much more susceptible to various security issues with user-supplied stylesheets. As a result of this, the new filter drops support for some IE-specific hacks:
  • Backslashes continue to be disallowed in stylesheets. Characters considered "control codes" in Unicode (except linefeeds, carriage returns, and tabs) are also disallowed. Note that stylesheets are encoded as UTF-8 and as such you can use unicode codepoints in it directly without having to resort to escape sequences. ☃
  • Some invalid CSS that passed the old filter is no longer accepted as valid. These are generally typos and syntax errors that were missed by the old parser and should be fixed anyway.

Good news

CSS 3! A plethora of new CSS powers are available now:

And a bunch more. See the code for the full list of properties and functions allowed.

This has been a long time coming. Thank you for your patience and I'm really excited to see what cool new things come out of this (within reason!)

EDIT: note: if you find any deficiencies with the filter, please report them to me in this thread — tinycss2 is almost certainly not where the issue is.

submitted by spladug to cssnews
[link] [183 comments]

Posted on 29 April 2014

Pure CSS3 Star Wars Lightsaber Checkboxes

Hey guys,

I was bored today, and decided to play around with the checkbox "hack".

For those who don't know what that is, it's basically creating CSS click events with checkboxes and it doesn't involve any javascript.

This is how it's done:

input[type=checkbox]:checked ~ div { } 

So here's my code, let me know what you all think. It's not really meant to be UI/UX friendly, but just a neat little demo.

Thanks all!

Landing Page



submitted by scotchio to css
[link] [24 comments]

Posted on 19 May 2013

...and now for a word from our sponsor (because for once we have one *asking* to hear your feedback).

Yesterday, reddit started running ads for a new sponsor. While we normally don't introduce new campaigns [insert joke about never having a campaign to announce], this one is notable because the advertiser actually seems to understand what reddit can offer that traditional advertising (even traditional web advertising) cannot.

See, Microsoft is getting ready to release Internet Explorer 9, and they reached out to us because they genuinely want to start a dialog with the reddit community. In fact, they've taken the unprecedented step of putting the reddit team in charge of this entire campaign. This is a great deal of trust for an advertiser to offer, and we should both take it as a huge compliment.

So, how should we do this? If there's one thing I've learned in my five-plus years at reddit, it's that the direct and open approach works best, so instead of marketspeak, I'm going to paste a quote from Wikipedia:

IE9 will have complete or nearly complete support for all CSS 3 selectors, border-radius CSS 3 property, faster JavaScript, and embedded ICC v2 or v4 color profiles support via Windows Color System. IE9 will feature hardware-accelerated graphics rendering using Direct2D, hardware accelerated text rendering using DirectWrite, hardware accelerated video rendering using Media Foundation, imaging support provided by Windows Imaging Component, and high fidelity printing powered by the XPS print pipeline. IE9 also supports the HTML5 video and audio tags and the Web Open Font Format.

If you have a computer that can run IE9, we'd really like you to try it out and post a review. The actual IE9 programmers are going to read what you have to say, and if you compliment their work, it'll totally make their day. But they also need to hear your complaints. Ideally, in the form of constructive criticism, but we warned them that reddit can sometimes be a little... brisk, so they're prepared for that, too.

One last thing: Microsoft's not the only ones who want your feedback. We at team reddit are interested in hearing what you think of this campaign in a general sense: do you find this kind of advertising more appealing than sidebar ads? Do you have any suggestions as to how it could be even better? (Especially things that could never happen in a magazine.)

Oh, and stay tuned for a Microsoft IamA next week. We're not sure who it will be with yet, but we've been assured it won't just be with flack.

submitted by KeyserSosa to blog
[link] [3315 comments]

Posted on 16 September 2010

AskWebDesign: Can we please stop using "HTML5" as shorthand for "HTML5 Canvas + CSS3 + Javascript"? Maybe we need a name for that, but it's not "HTML5."

Maybe it's just a personal pet peeve, but I really think it's a problem. HTML5, as a term, already means something. HTML5 will not revolutionize the web on its own. You can't animate things using solely HTML5 - and with very few exceptions, even HTML5+CSS3 alone won't do much in the way of animation (yes, some transitions do exist)...

Will the combination of these 3 technologies revolutionize the web? Probably. But a semantic markup specification, by itself, isn't anything remotely close to a "Flash killer", or even a tool for building usable websites. HTML5 without CSS3 is useless.

Do we need a shorter name than "HTML5 Canvas + CSS3 + Javascript" when we're talking about what will compete with Flash? Sure. Maybe "Dynamic Canvas", or "Canvas animations", or something... but HTML5 all by itself is not a competitor to anything but HTML4.

submitted by honestbleeps to web_design
[link] [56 comments]

Posted on 14 May 2010

Hey webbit, here's what I made this weekend: An extension on top of Readability that makes any webpage grow horizontally using fixed-height css3 multicols.

Some of you may remember a page I made a few months ago that used fixed-height css3 multicols. Here's the post. It didn't go over great, but I still loved the concept.

This weekend, I figured it all out. Fixed height columns work really well with the pretty output that Readability produces. So, I created some JavaScript that makes it happen.

The result: Horizontability

Works the same way as Readability. The arrows in the top left (or PgUp and PgDown) scroll the page by column. Arrow keys and mouse wheel scroll the usual way, sort of. It works for me in Firefox, Chrome, and Safari. It should work at any resolution and be most beneficial on wide screens. Many karmas to someone with a ridiculous resolution who posts a screenshot of the entire first chapter of Metamorphosis (the text in the background) in a single window.

edit: No more mousewheel control because it messes up trackpads and all the arrow keys now perform full column jumps; also, there're buttons.

and I forgot to mention a link of a rebuttal of my original idea: here

submitted by etcet to web_design
[link] [24 comments]

Posted on 11 April 2010